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Maternal antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and infant low birth weight and preterm birth.

Szyld EG, Warley EM, Freimanis L, Gonin R, Cahn PE, Calvet GA, Duarte G, Melo VH, Read JS, NISDI Perinatal Study Group. AIDS 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2345-53.

Abstract

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between maternal antiretroviral regimens during pregnancy and adverse infant outcomes [low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth]. The a priori hypothesis was that protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens are associated with an increased risk of LBW and preterm birth. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected women and their infants (NISDI Perinatal Study). METHODS: Data were analysed from 681 women receiving at least one antiretroviral drug [in order of increasing complexity: one or two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (1-2 NRTI), two NRTI plus one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (HAART/NNRTI), or two NRTI plus one PI (HAART/PI)] for at least 28 days during pregnancy, and who delivered live born, singleton infants with known birth weight and gestational age by 1 March 2005. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the relationship of maternal ART with LBW and with preterm birth, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The incidence of LBW and preterm birth, respectively, was 9.6% and 7.4% (1-2 NRTI), 7.4% and 5.8% (HAART/NNRTI), and 16.7% and 10.6% (HAART/PI). There was no statistically significant increased risk of LBW [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.7-3.2] or preterm birth (AOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.8) among women who received HAART/PI compared with women receiving 1-2 NRTI. CONCLUSIONS: Among a population of HIV-1-infected women in Latin America and the Caribbean, maternal receipt of PI-containing ART regimens during pregnancy was not associated with a statistically significant increase in risk of LBW or preterm birth.

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